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Retail’s evolution depends on edge computing

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Retail’s evolution depends on edge computing


“When you think about a retailer that has 2,000 locations across the country, it’s too expensive to deploy on-premises data processing and analytics for every single location, so that’s where edge computing can be a huge boon,” says Paul Savill, senior vice president of product management and services at technology company Lumen, who points out that edge computing is designed to work in tandem with cloud. “Edge nodes combine hardware-driven computational power with software-defined networking capabilities to connect it to the public cloud,” he explains. “From one centralized node in one market area, say, the size of Denver, edge computing can serve many more retail locations within five milliseconds.”

Opportunities outweigh challenges

Shivkumar Krishnan, head of stores engineering at Gap, says the biggest challenge to making edge computing a reality in retail is legacy infrastructure. “As an end user on the cloud, it’s much easier to upgrade, since you can simply push a button and shut down or replace a virtual machine. In retail, it’s more of a logistics problem,” he explains. When setting up the first time, each location needs to connect its devices to the edge, which may need to be done at night, when customers aren’t in the store. And with vendors working on-site, store security staff as well as the manager will need to be on hand. “It really becomes more of a logistics challenge to figure out the availability of everyone,” Krishnan says. “And the process needs to be repeated for each of our 2,500 stores.” In the cloud, one push of a button can deploy hundreds of servers.

Data security is also an inevitable challenge when it comes to the internet of things and other digital devices. “The more you concentrate information in a location, the more you have to worry about protecting that, and the riskier that becomes in terms of creating a single spot that can be penetrated, and information stolen,” says Savill. But edge computing supported at nodes in nearby data centers and connecting to the public cloud are generally more secure and reliable than what a retailer could do on its own. That’s because edge providers, much like public cloud providers, are providing cybersecurity from a central location, on a mass scale, so they have visibility into what the threats are and how they’re affecting their customers, says Savill.

That said, the benefits and opportunities of the edge far outweigh potential challenges. “One of our biggest use cases for edge computing is at the point of sale, where we process millions of transactions,” Krishnan explains. From the store to the cloud, there are many failure points—switches, routers, the telecom circuit, and cloud providers. “The edge gives us a high level of redundancy to process all transactions at the store itself and fall back to the cloud if the edge fails,” he says.

“The edge gives us the full redundancy to process all transactions at the store itself and fall back to the cloud if the edge fails.”

Shivkumar Krishnan, Head of Stores Engineering, Gap

Gap has invested in edge servers over the past few years, says Krishnan, as part of an overall platform using the latest technologies such as microservices, cloud computing, streaming services, and a DevOps approach to engineering. “Now, with our platform, we can build, validate, and deploy applications with rapid turnarounds—all within the same day,” he says. “I can remotely monitor and manage the majority of our over 100,000 devices. Our sales associates use iPads that give us the ability to build native mobile user experiences that are intuitive.”

While Gap was early to the edge computing game, the challenge is keeping up with the latest and most advanced technologies, as with any technology adoption. Today’s edge servers have built-in graphic processing units, network routers, and broadband technology 5G, “all packaged in small-footprint devices that are built from the ground up for advanced machine learning,” he says. “Hopefully, we will catch the next iteration of these advancements and leapfrog others who get them now.”

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Why can’t tech fix its gender problem?

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From left to right: Gordon MOORE, C. Sheldon ROBERTS, Eugene KLEINER, Robert NOYCE, Victor GRINICH, Julius BLANK, Jean HOERNI and Jay LAST.


Not competing in this Olympics, but still contributing to the industry’s success, were the thousands of women who worked in the Valley’s microchip fabrication plants and other manufacturing facilities from the 1960s to the early 1980s. Some were working-class Asian- and Mexican-Americans whose mothers and grandmothers had worked in the orchards and fruit can­neries of the prewar Valley. Others were recent migrants from the East and Midwest, white and often college educated, needing income and interested in technical work. 

With few other technical jobs available to them in the Valley, women would work for less. The preponderance of women on the lines helped keep the region’s factory wages among the lowest in the country. Women continue to dominate high-tech assembly lines, though now most of the factories are located thousands of miles away. In 1970, one early American-owned Mexican production line employed 600 workers, nearly 90% of whom were female. Half a century later the pattern continued: in 2019, women made up 90% of the workforce in one enormous iPhone assembly plant in India. Female production workers make up 80% of the entire tech workforce of Vietnam. 

Venture: “The Boys Club”

Chipmaking’s fiercely competitive and unusually demanding managerial culture proved to be highly influential, filtering down through the millionaires of the first semiconductor generation as they deployed their wealth and managerial experience in other companies. But venture capital was where semiconductor culture cast its longest shadow. 

The Valley’s original venture capitalists were a tight-knit bunch, mostly young men managing older, much richer men’s money. At first there were so few of them that they’d book a table at a San Francisco restaurant, summoning founders to pitch everyone at once. So many opportunities were flowing it didn’t much matter if a deal went to someone else. Charter members like Silicon Valley venture capitalist Reid Dennis called it “The Group.” Other observers, like journalist John W. Wilson, called it “The Boys Club.”

The men who left the Valley’s first silicon chipmaker, Shockley Semiconductor, to start Fairchild Semiconductor in 1957 were called “the Traitorous Eight.”

WAYNE MILLER/MAGNUM PHOTOS

The venture business was expanding by the early 1970s, even though down markets made it a terrible time to raise money. But the firms founded and led by semiconductor veterans during this period became industry-defining ones. Gene Kleiner left Fairchild Semiconductor to cofound Kleiner Perkins, whose long list of hits included Genentech, Sun Microsystems, AOL, Google, and Amazon. Master intimidator Don Valentine founded Sequoia Capital, making early-stage investments in Atari and Apple, and later in Cisco, Google, Instagram, Airbnb, and many others.

Generations: “Pattern recognition”

Silicon Valley venture capitalists left their mark not only by choosing whom to invest in, but by advising and shaping the business sensibility of those they funded. They were more than bankers. They were mentors, professors, and father figures to young, inexperienced men who often knew a lot about technology and nothing about how to start and grow a business. 

“This model of one generation succeeding and then turning around to offer the next generation of entrepreneurs financial support and managerial expertise,” Silicon Valley historian Leslie Berlin writes, “is one of the most important and under-recognized secrets to Silicon Valley’s ongoing success.” Tech leaders agree with Berlin’s assessment. Apple cofounder Steve Jobs—who learned most of what he knew about business from the men of the semiconductor industry—likened it to passing a baton in a relay race.

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Predicting the climate bill’s effects is harder than you might think

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Predicting the climate bill’s effects is harder than you might think


Human decision-making can also cause models and reality to misalign. “People don’t necessarily always do what is, on paper, the most economic,” says Robbie Orvis, who leads the energy policy solutions program at Energy Innovation.

This is a common issue for consumer tax credits, like those for electric vehicles or home energy efficiency upgrades. Often people don’t have the information or funds needed to take advantage of tax credits.

Likewise, there are no assurances that credits in the power sectors will have the impact that modelers expect. Finding sites for new power projects and getting permits for them can be challenging, potentially derailing progress. Some of this friction is factored into the models, Orvis says. But there’s still potential for more challenges than modelers expect.

Not enough

Putting too much stock in results from models can be problematic, says James Bushnell, an economist at the University of California, Davis. For one thing, models could overestimate how much behavior change is because of tax credits. Some of the projects that are claiming tax credits would probably have been built anyway, Bushnell says, especially solar and wind installations, which are already becoming more widespread and cheaper to build.

Still, whether or not the bill meets the expectations of the modelers, it’s a step forward in providing climate-friendly incentives, since it replaces solar- and wind-specific credits with broader clean-energy credits that will be more flexible for developers in choosing which technologies to deploy.

Another positive of the legislation is all its long-term investments, whose potential impacts aren’t fully captured in the economic models. The bill includes money for research and development of new technologies like direct air capture and clean hydrogen, which are still unproven but could have major impacts on emissions in the coming decades if they prove to be efficient and practical. 

Whatever the effectiveness of the Inflation Reduction Act, however, it’s clear that more climate action is still needed to meet emissions goals in 2030 and beyond. Indeed, even if the predictions of the modelers are correct, the bill is still not sufficient for the US to meet its stated goals under the Paris agreement of cutting emissions to half of 2005 levels by 2030.

The path ahead for US climate action isn’t as certain as some might wish it were. But with the Inflation Reduction Act, the country has taken a big step. Exactly how big is still an open question. 

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China has censored a top health information platform

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China has censored a top health information platform


The suspension has met with a gleeful social reaction among nationalist bloggers, who accuse DXY of receiving foreign funding, bashing traditional Chinese medicine, and criticizing China’s health-care system. 

DXY is one of the front-runners in China’s digital health startup scene. It hosts the largest online community Chinese doctors use to discuss professional topics and socialize. It also provides a medical news service for a general audience, and it is widely seen as the most influential popular science publication in health care. 

“I think no one, as long as they are somewhat related to the medical profession, doesn’t follow these accounts [of DXY],” says Zhao Yingxi, a global health researcher and PhD candidate at Oxford University, who says he followed DXY’s accounts on WeChat too. 

But in the increasingly polarized social media environment in China, health care is becoming a target for controversy. The swift conclusion that DXY’s demise was triggered by its foreign ties and critical work illustrates how politicized health topics have become. 

Since its launch in 2000, DXY has raised five rounds of funding from prominent companies like Tencent and venture capital firms. But even that commercial success has caused it trouble this week. One of its major investors, Trustbridge Partners, raises funds from sources like Columbia University’s endowments and Singapore’s state holding company Temasek. After DXY’s accounts were suspended, bloggers used that fact to try to back up their claim that DXY has been under foreign influence all along. 

Part of the reason the suspension is so shocking is that DXY is widely seen as one of the most trusted online sources for health education in China. During the early days of the covid-19 pandemic, it compiled case numbers and published a case map that was updated every day, becoming the go-to source for Chinese people seeking to follow covid trends in the country. DXY also made its name by taking down several high-profile fraudulent health products in China.

It also hasn’t shied away from sensitive issues. For example, on the International Day Against Homophobia, Transphobia, and Biphobia in 2019, it published the accounts of several victims of conversion therapy and argued that the practice is not backed by medical consensus. 

“The article put survivors’ voices front and center and didn’t tiptoe around the disturbing reality that conversion therapy is still prevalent and even pushed by highly ranked public hospitals and academics,” says Darius Longarino, a senior fellow at Yale Law School’s Paul Tsai China Center. 

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