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The Download: India’s deadly heatwaves, and the need for carbon removal



The Download: India’s deadly heatwaves, and the need for carbon removal

The residents of Nagla Tulai, a farming village in the north Indian state of Uttar Pradesh, have always had to endure hot summers, but the past few years of punishingly cruel heat have tested their strength. This May it hit 49°C (120°F), the highest India has recorded in 122 years. Since then, local news reports have attributed more than 50 deaths to the record-breaking heat.

At the end of April, when the daytime temperature crossed 45°C (113°F), most residents of Nagla Tulai sought succor in the winds blowing outdoors. It’s one of the few Indian villages yet to be electrified. That means no fans, no coolers, and no air conditioners for its 150-odd households.

The men in the village have been forced into working no more than two hours a day in a bid to avoid the sun at its hottest. As temperatures intensify each year, they’re worried they’ll have no choice but to leave Nagla Tulai in search of employment in cities; jobs that won’t pay enough for them to take their families with them.

We need to draw down carbon—not just stop emitting it

The news: The UN’s climate panel has warned that the world will need to remove billions of tons of carbon dioxide from the atmosphere each year, on top of rapid emissions cuts, to pull the planet back from increasingly dangerous warming levels. Researchers and startups are working on a variety of methods, including building greenhouse-gas-sucking factories and using minerals to lock up carbon.

Contentious plans: Carbon removal has become a touchy topic—there are real concerns that the growing focus on lowering levels of the greenhouse gas could encourage governments and businesses to delay or even avoid the most obvious and direct way of addressing climate change: preventing emissions from reaching the atmosphere in the first place.

A complicated solution: Experts warn that unfortunately, after decades of delay, there are now few paths to meeting climate change goals that don’t require both slashing emissions today and building the capacity to suck up vast amounts of carbon dioxide in the future. Read the full story.

By Zeke Hausfather, climate research lead at Stripe Climate, and a contributing author to the IPCC Sixth Assessment Report, and Jane Flegal, market development and policy lead at Stripe Climate.

The must-reads

I’ve combed the internet to find you today’s most fun/important/scary/fascinating stories about technology.

1 The Large Hadron Collider will roar back to life today
CERN scientists are hoping to discover more insights into how the universe works. (NPR)
+ It’s 10 years since the Higgs boson particle was discovered. (Economist $)

2 An updated covid vaccine is due in the fall
The problem is, we need them now. (NYT $)
+ The risk of reinfection is forcing health experts to rethink booster jabs. (FT $)

3 AI could help remedy discrimination against Black homebuyers 
By evaluating how a $25,000 reparation grant could bolster housing deposits. (New Scientist)

4 It’s time to end the stigma around menstrual blood
Some scientists and doctors shy away from studying it, even though it could give us valuable insight into women’s health. (Undark)
+ What if you could diagnose diseases with a tampon? (MIT Technology Review)

5 NASA’s probe is on its way to the moon 🌕
It’s on course to reach the moon by November. (Gizmodo)
+ The agency’s also been working on a detailed map of Mars. (Input)

6 Rising inflation means we can’t afford to upgrade our computers
Which, coupled with the crypto crash, doesn’t bode well for semiconductor makers. (WSJ $)

7 Conservative radio stations are peddling misinformation 📻
Pundits are repeating the same false claims accusing the Democrats of cheating in the 2020 Presidential election. (NYT $)

8 Subtitling hit TV shows is really, really hard
Clumsy translations can mistranslate crucial moments for an unwitting audience. (CNET)
+ Better captioning online stands to benefit everyone. (MIT Technology Review)

9 The internet really wants a magnet-propelled car
Unfortunately, physics doesn’t agree. (Wired $)

10 A mummified baby wooly mammoth has been uncovered in the Yukon
She may have coexisted with the ancestors of today’s First Nations Peoples. (Gizmodo)
+ Researchers are divided over how a winged pterosaur was able to fly. (Ars Technica)

The big story


The Download: metaverse fashion, and looser covid rules in China



The Download: metaverse fashion, and looser covid rules in China

Fashion creator Jenni Svoboda is designing a beanie with a melted cupcake top, sprinkles, and doughnuts for ears. But this outlandish accessory isn’t destined for the physical world—Svoboda is designing for the metaverse. She’s working in a burgeoning, if bizarre, new niche: fashion stylists who create or curate outfits for people in virtual spaces.

Metaverse stylists are increasingly sought-after as frequent users seek help dressing their avatars—often in experimental, wildly creative looks that defy personal expectations, societal standards, and sometimes even physics. 

Stylists like Svoboda are among those shaping the metaverse fashion industry, which is already generating hundreds of millions of dollars. But while, to the casual observer, it can seem outlandish and even obscene to spend so much money on virtual clothes, there are deeper, more personal, reasons why people are hiring professionals to curate their virtual outfits. Read the full story.

—Tanya Basu

Making sense of the changes to China’s zero-covid policy

On December 1, 2019, the first known covid-19 patient started showing symptoms in Wuhan. Three years later, China is the last country in the world holding on to strict pandemic control restrictions. However, after days of intense protests that shocked the world, it looks as if things could finally change.

Beijing has just announced wide-ranging relaxations of its zero covid policy, including allowing people to quarantine at home instead of in special facilities for the first time.

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Uber’s facial recognition is locking Indian drivers out of their accounts 




Uber checks that a driver’s face matches what the company has on file through a program called “Real-Time ID Check.” It was rolled out in the US in 2016, in India in 2017, and then in other markets. “This prevents fraud and protects drivers’ accounts from being compromised. It also protects riders by building another layer of accountability into the app to ensure the right person is behind the wheel,” Joe Sullivan, Uber’s chief security officer, said in a statement in 2017.

But the company’s driver verification procedures are far from seamless. Adnan Taqi, an Uber driver in Mumbai, ran into trouble with it when the app prompted him to take a selfie around dusk. He was locked out for 48 hours, a big dent in his work schedule—he says he drives 18 hours straight, sometimes as much as 24 hours, to be able to make a living. Days later, he took a selfie that locked him out of his account again, this time for a whole week. That time, Taqi suspects, it came down to hair: “I hadn’t shaved for a few days and my hair had also grown out a bit,” he says. 

More than a dozen drivers interviewed for this story detailed instances of having to find better lighting to avoid being locked out of their Uber accounts. “Whenever Uber asks for a selfie in the evenings or at night, I’ve had to pull over and go under a streetlight to click a clear picture—otherwise there are chances of getting rejected,” said Santosh Kumar, an Uber driver from Hyderabad. 

Others have struggled with scratches on their cameras and low-budget smartphones. The problem isn’t unique to Uber. Drivers with Ola, which is backed by SoftBank, face similar issues. 

Some of these struggles can be explained by natural limitations in face recognition technology. The software starts by converting your face into a set of points, explains Jernej Kavka, an independent technology consultant with access to Microsoft’s Face API, which is what Uber uses to power Real-Time ID Check. 

Adnan Taqi holds up his phone in the driver’s seat of his car. Variations in lighting and facial hair have likely caused him to lose access to the app.


“With excessive facial hair, the points change and it may not recognize where the chin is,” Kavka says. The same thing happens when there is low lighting or the phone’s camera doesn’t have a good contrast. “This makes it difficult for the computer to detect edges,” he explains.

But the software may be especially brittle in India. In December 2021, tech policy researchers Smriti Parsheera (a fellow with the CyberBRICS project) and Gaurav Jain (an economist with the International Finance Corporation) posted a preprint paper that audited four commercial facial processing tools—Amazon’s Rekognition, Microsoft Azure’s Face, Face++, and FaceX—for their performance on Indian faces. When the software was applied to a database of 32,184 election candidates, Microsoft’s Face failed to even detect the presence of a face in more than 1,000 images, throwing an error rate of more than 3%—the worst among the four. 

It could be that the Uber app is failing drivers because its software was not trained on a diverse range of Indian faces, Parsheera says. But she says there may be other issues at play as well. “There could be a number of other contributing factors like lighting, angle, effects of aging, etc.,” she explained in writing. “But the lack of transparency surrounding the use of such systems makes it hard to provide a more concrete explanation.” 

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The Download: Uber’s flawed facial recognition, and police drones



The Download: Uber’s flawed facial recognition, and police drones

One evening in February last year, a 23-year-old Uber driver named Niradi Srikanth was getting ready to start another shift, ferrying passengers around the south Indian city of Hyderabad. He pointed the phone at his face to take a selfie to verify his identity. The process usually worked seamlessly. But this time he was unable to log in.

Srikanth suspected it was because he had recently shaved his head. After further attempts to log in were rejected, Uber informed him that his account had been blocked. He is not alone. In a survey conducted by MIT Technology Review of 150 Uber drivers in the country, almost half had been either temporarily or permanently locked out of their accounts because of problems with their selfie.

Hundreds of thousands of India’s gig economy workers are at the mercy of facial recognition technology, with few legal, policy or regulatory protections. For workers like Srikanth, getting blocked from or kicked off a platform can have devastating consequences. Read the full story.

—Varsha Bansal

I met a police drone in VR—and hated it

Police departments across the world are embracing drones, deploying them for everything from surveillance and intelligence gathering to even chasing criminals. Yet none of them seem to be trying to find out how encounters with drones leave people feeling—or whether the technology will help or hinder policing work.

A team from University College London and the London School of Economics is filling in the gaps, studying how people react when meeting police drones in virtual reality, and whether they come away feeling more or less trusting of the police. 

MIT Technology Review’s Melissa Heikkilä came away from her encounter with a VR police drone feeling unnerved. If others feel the same way, the big question is whether these drones are effective tools for policing in the first place. Read the full story.

Melissa’s story is from The Algorithm, her weekly newsletter covering AI and its effects on society. Sign up to receive it in your inbox every Monday.

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