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The Download: Opting out of the crypto hype, and the gig workers resisting oppressive algorithms

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This is today’s edition of The Download, our weekday newsletter that provides a daily dose of what’s going on in the world of technology.

It’s okay to opt out of the crypto revolution. 

Crypto advertising is everywhere. Billboards surround the Bay Area and line LA highways, and you can’t catch a train in NYC without running into an ad for a coin or exchange. A-listers like Gwyneth Paltrow are pushing crypto platforms, and this year’s Super Bowl broadcast was studded with big-budget crypto spots, each trumpeting the opportunity to strike it rich.

But despite their ubiquity and lavish expense, these ads routinely omit any description of what crypto is, or what any of the crypto companies that have paid to plaster our landscape are actually selling. There’s a good reason for that. While the industry has been good to lucky speculators with the disposable cash to risk and the time to figure out how to do so, it has little to offer the average person today. 

Crypto enthusiasts claim that the industry will revolutionize financial systems by decentralizing commerce, grabbing the reins from the banks that have betrayed us in the past and the Big Tech gatekeepers. But so far, the crypto industry has not made good on that democratizing promise. Read the full story.

—Rebecca Ackermann

The gig workers fighting back against the algorithms

In the Bendungan Hilir neighborhood, just a stone’s throw from Jakarta’s glitzy central business district, motorcycle drivers gather in an informal “base camp.” They are drivers with Gojek, Indonesia’s largest ride-hailing firm. They’re also part of the backbone of a growing movement of resistance against the dispatch algorithms that dominate their lives.

Base camps grew out of a tradition that existed before algorithmic ride-hailing services came to Indonesia. They’re the network through which drivers around the city stay in tight communication. This sense of community is now at the heart of what distinguishes Jakarta’s drivers from other gig workers around the world, and could reveal a new playbook for resistance: a way for workers to build collective power, achieve a measure of security, and take care of one another when seemingly no one else will. Read the full story.

—Karen Hao and Nadine Freischlad

This is the third part of our series investigating AI colonialism, shining a light on how the technology is impoverishing the communities and countries that don’t have a say in its development. The final part is coming tomorrow, but you can read part one here, part two here, and Karen Hao’s introductory essay here.

Quote of the day

“People are my air.”

— Robin Solod, a woman who lives alone on Manhattan’s Upper East Side, speaks for many of us when she tells the New York Times how much she’s come to appreciate the need to socialize.

The must-reads

I’ve combed the internet to find you today’s most fun/important/scary/fascinating stories about technology.

1 China is claiming that only 17 people have died from covid in Shanghai
Which raises questions about how it defines a covid death. (NYT $)
The city is forcing vulnerable and elderly residents into makeshift quarantine camps. (CNN)
Unsurprisingly, the strict lockdown has sparked a major mental health crisis. (The Guardian)
China is resorting to censoring its own national anthem. (Newsweek
A Spanish woman contracted covid twice in just 20 days. (BBC)
Working out when to receive your next booster is tricky. (WP $)
It’s totally fine if you still feel cautious about catching covid as restrictions lift. (Slate $)

2 Online disinformation is wreaking havoc in Sri Lanka
And, naturally, Facebook is playing a central role. (Rest of World)
+ Barack Obama is worried about disinformation. (NYT $)
Russia’s “fake news” law is being used to persecute investigative journalists. (The Guardian)

3 A social media campaign brought a murder suspect to trial
After the police stepped back, a community of amateur sleuths came to the rescue. (The Cut $)

4 Meet the pandemic’s PPE scammers 
Lots of people saw a crisis. Others saw an opportunity to make a lot of money. (The Verge)

5 Who are digital pills containing trackers that alert doctors if they’re not taken really for?
They’re unlikely to help the people who may need medication the most. (Slate $)

6 Gen Z is embracing “authentic” social platform BeReal
It’s got no ads, no visible follower count, and, crucially, no filters. (WSJ $)
+ Instagram really wants you to stop reposting TikToks to Reels. (The Verge)

7 Solar power is still a rich man’s game 
And that’s a massive barrier for wider adoption. (Wired $)
Climate change is ravaging lives across the globe. (WP $)
An Ecuadorian flower was named after its own extinction, before being rediscovered. (WP $) 

8 How a stealth camera reveals hidden creatures in the sea’s depths 🦑
We’re still discovering freaky new underwater species. (Vox)

9 Firms are so desperate for chips, they’re tearing apart washing machines
The semiconductor shortage is biting, and companies are panicking. (Bloomberg $)

10 Gut Health is taking over TikTok
But it’s quick fixes and not long-term healthy lifestyle changes that tend to go viral. (NYT $)
A study says time-restricted eating doesn’t work as a weight loss strategy. (NYT $)
Popular TikTok recipes sound delicious and disgusting in equal measure. (The Guardian)
Deep dive analysis of all sorts of topics is taking over TikTok. (Vox)

We can still have nice things

A place for comfort, fun and distraction in these weird times. (Got any ideas? Drop me a line or tweet ’em at me.)

+ A timeless joke for a timeless song.
+ Did you know soccer managers used to have to send VHS tapes to the South Pacific in order to have their matches analyzed? Fascinating stuff.
+ Why are dolls so pervasive in popular culture right now? 
+ Enjoy this mesmerizing clip of a Feather Star marine creature bobbing along.
+ Turns out a Clueless-style closet isn’t all it’s cracked up to be—it sounds exhausting.
+ These old-skool special film effects are enchanting.
+ If you’ve ever needed to know why Oreo cream only ever sticks to one wafer, here’s your answer.



Tech

The EU wants to put companies on the hook for harmful AI

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The EU wants to put companies on the hook for harmful AI


The new bill, called the AI Liability Directive, will add teeth to the EU’s AI Act, which is set to become EU law around the same time. The AI Act would require extra checks for “high risk” uses of AI that have the most potential to harm people, including systems for policing, recruitment, or health care. 

The new liability bill would give people and companies the right to sue for damages after being harmed by an AI system. The goal is to hold developers, producers, and users of the technologies accountable, and require them to explain how their AI systems were built and trained. Tech companies that fail to follow the rules risk EU-wide class actions.

For example, job seekers who can prove that an AI system for screening résumés discriminated against them can ask a court to force the AI company to grant them access to information about the system so they can identify those responsible and find out what went wrong. Armed with this information, they can sue. 

The proposal still needs to snake its way through the EU’s legislative process, which will take a couple of years at least. It will be amended by members of the European Parliament and EU governments and will likely face intense lobbying from tech companies, which claim that such rules could have a “chilling” effect on innovation. 

Whether or not it succeeds, this new EU legislation will have a ripple effect on how AI is regulated around the world.

In particular, the bill could have an adverse impact on software development, says Mathilde Adjutor, Europe’s policy manager for the tech lobbying group CCIA, which represents companies including Google, Amazon, and Uber.  

Under the new rules, “developers not only risk becoming liable for software bugs, but also for software’s potential impact on the mental health of users,” she says. 

Imogen Parker, associate director of policy at the Ada Lovelace Institute, an AI research institute, says the bill will shift power away from companies and back toward consumers—a correction she sees as particularly important given AI’s potential to discriminate. And the bill will ensure that when an AI system does cause harm, there’s a common way to seek compensation across the EU, says Thomas Boué, head of European policy for tech lobby BSA, whose members include Microsoft and IBM. 

However, some consumer rights organizations and activists say the proposals don’t go far enough and will set the bar too high for consumers who want to bring claims. 

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China is betting big on another gas engine alternative: methanol cars

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China is betting big on another gas engine alternative: methanol cars


Today, the leading company making methanol from carbon dioxide is Carbon Recycling International, an Icelandic company. Geely invested in CRI in 2015, and they have partnered to build the world’s largest CO2-to-fuel factory in China. When it’s running, it could recycle 160,000 tons of CO2 emissions from steel plants every year. 

The potential for clean production is what makes methanol desirable as a fuel. It’s not just a more efficient way to use energy, but also a way to remove existing CO2 from the air. To reach carbon neutrality by 2060, as China has promised, the country can’t put all its eggs in one basket, like EVs. Popularizing the use of methanol fuel and the clean production of methanol may enable China to hit its target sooner.

Can methanol move beyond its dirty roots?

But the future is not all bright and green. Currently, the majority of methanol in China is still made by burning coal. In fact, the ability to power cars with coal instead of oil, which China doesn’t have much of, was a major reason the country pursued methanol in the first place. Today, the Chinese provinces that lead in methanol-car experiments are also the ones that have abundant coal resources.  

But as Bromberg says, unlike gas and diesel, at least methanol has the potential to be green. The production of methanol may still have a high carbon footprint today, just as most EVs in China are still powered by electricity generated from coal. But there is a path to transition from coal-produced methanol to renewables-produced methanol. 

“If that is not an intention—if people are not going to pursue low-carbon methanol—you really don’t want to implement methanol at all,” Bromberg says.

Methanol fuel also has other potential drawbacks. It has a lower energy density than gasoline or diesel, requiring bigger, heavier fuel tanks—or drivers may need to refuel more often. This also effectively prevents methanol from being used as an airplane fuel.

What’s more, methanol is severely toxic when ingested and moderately so when inhaled or when people are exposed to it in large amounts. The potential harm was a big concern during the pilot program, though the researchers concluded that methanol proved no more toxic to participants than gas. 

Beyond China, some other countries, like Germany and Denmark, are also exploring the potential of methanol fuels. China, though, is at least one step ahead of the rest—even if it remains a big question whether it will replicate its success in developing EVs or follow the path of another country with a major auto industry. 

In 1982, California offered subsidies for car manufacturers to make over 900 methanol cars in a pilot program. The Reagan administration even pushed for the Alternative Motor Fuels Act to promote the use of methanol. But a lack of advocacy and the falling price of gasoline prevented further research of methanol fuel, and pilot drivers, while generally satisfied with their cars’ performance, complained about the availability of methanol fuel and the smaller range compared with gas cars. California officially ended the use of methanol cars in 2005, and there’s been no such experimentation in the US since.

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Can we find ways to live beyond 100? Millionaires are betting on it.

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Can we find ways to live beyond 100? Millionaires are betting on it.


But to test the same treatments in people, we’d need to run clinical trials for decades, which would be very difficult and extremely expensive. So the hunt is on for chemical clues in the blood or cells that might reveal how quickly a person is aging. Quite a few “aging clocks,” which purport to give a person’s biological age rather than their chronological age, have been developed. But none are reliable enough to test anti-aging drugs—yet. 

As I leave to head back to my own slightly less posh but still beautiful hotel, I’m handed a gift bag. It’s loaded up with anti-aging supplements, a box with a note saying it contains an AI longevity assistant, and even a regenerative toothpaste. At first glance, I have absolutely no idea if any of them are based on solid science. They might be nothing more than placebos.

Ultimately, of all the supplements, drugs and various treatments being promoted here, the workout is the one that’s most likely to work, judging from the evidence we have so far. It’s obvious, but regular exercise is key to gaining healthy years of life. Workouts designed to strengthen our muscles seem to be particularly beneficial for keeping us healthy, especially in later life. They can even help keep our brains young.
 
I’ll be penning a proper write up of the conference when I’m back home, so if your curiosity has been piqued, keep an eye out for that next week! In the meantime, here’s some related reading:

  • I wrote about what aging clocks can and can’t tell us about our biological age earlier this year.
  • Anti-aging drugs are being tested as a way to treat covid. The idea is that, by rejuvenating the immune system, we might be able to protect vulnerable older people from severe disease.
  • Longevity scientists are working to extend the lifespan of pet dogs. There’ll be benefits for the animals and their owners, but the eventual goal is to extend human lifespan, as I wrote in August.
  • The Saudi royal family could become one of the most significant investors in anti-aging research, according to this piece by my colleague Antonio Regalado. The family’s Hevolution Foundation plans to spend a billion dollars a year on understanding how aging works, and how to extend healthy lifespan.
  • While we’re on the subject of funding, most of the investment in the field has been poured into Altos Labs—a company focusing on ways to tackle aging by reprogramming cells to a more youthful state. The company has received financial backing from some of the wealthiest people in the world, including Jeff Bezos and Yuri Milner, Antonio explains.

From around the web

An experimental Alzheimer’s drug appears to slow cognitive decline. It’s huge news, given the decades of failed attempts to treat the disease. But the full details of the study have not yet been published, and it is difficult to know how much of an impact the drug might have on the lives of people with the disease. (STAT)

Bionic pancreases could successfully treat type 1 diabetes, according to the results of a clinical trial. The credit card-sized device, worn on the abdomen, can constantly monitor a person’s blood sugar levels, and deliver insulin when needed. (MIT Technology Review)

We’re headed for a dementia epidemic in US prisons. There’s a growing number of older inmates, and the US penal system doesn’t have the resources to look after them. (Scientific American)

Unvaccinated people are 14 times more likely to develop monkeypox disease than those who receive the Jynneos vaccine are, according to the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. But the organization doesn’t yet know how the vaccine affects the severity of disease in those who do become unwell, or if there is any difference in protection for people who are given fractional doses. (The New York Times $)

Don’t call them minibrains! In last week’s Checkup, I covered organoids—tiny clumps of cells meant to mimic full-grown organs. They’ve mainly been used for research, but we’ve started to implant them into animals to treat disease, and humans are next. Arguably the best-known organoids are those made from brain cells, which have been referred to as minibrains. A group of leading scientists in the field say this wrongly implies that the cells are capable of complex mental functions, like the ability to think or feel pain. They ask that we use the less-catchy but more accurate term “neural organoid” instead. (Nature)

That’s it for this week. Thanks for reading!

—Jess

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